In 1979, Devi at the University of Illinois published an article ("About Smocks and Jocks") in which he contended that it was difficult to apply specific laboratory research to sporting situations. For instance, how can the pressure of shooting a foul shot in front of 12,000 screaming fans be duplicated in the lab? Martens contended: "I have grave doubts that isolated psychological studies which manipulate a few variables, attempting to uncover the effects of X on Y, can be cumulative to form a coherent picture of human behavior. I sense that the elegant control achieved in laboratory research is such that all meaning is drained from the experimental situation. The external validity of laboratory studies is at best limited to predicting behavior in other laboratories."  Martens urged researchers to get out of the laboratory and onto the field to meet athletes and coaches on their own turf. Martens' article spurred an increased interest in qualitative research methods in sport psychology, such as the seminal article "Mental Links to Excellence." 
Sometimes when a young person does not know how to deal with the emotions they are experiencing, they may begin to develop psychosomatic symptoms. This is when an emotional state results in a physical illness. Dr. Sansone cites that research in both the . and in Finland has shown a direct link between young children that are bullied and an increased incidence of headache, abdominal pain, bedwetting and sleeping problems. All of these physical manifestations can add to the child’s increased difficulty with social development, which in turn will continue on the cycle of bullying. For instance a child dealing with sleeping problems may be tired in school and begin to perform badly. This can easily become fodder for future bullying incidents. In an effort to ease their children’s discomfort parents may turn to medication that will only treat the physical ailment while the emotional cause of the problem is left unsolved.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder . It occurs when the individual experiences a memory “flashback” of a traumatic event which causes extreme distress. This momentary experience occurs during a state of depersonalisation, thus they are re-living the traumatic event in detail. It is this depersonalisation which contributes to the severe anxiety experienced. Short-term effects among children include loss of interest in enjoyed activities, clinging to guardians, nightmares, bed wetting and mutism (not speaking). If not treated the child will be at higher risk of meeting a full diagnosis of PTSD. Furthermore, those suffering mutism may not regain speech.