John Searle 's 1980 paper Minds, Brains, and Programs proposed the " Chinese room " thought experiment and argued that the Turing test could not be used to determine if a machine can think. Searle noted that software (such as ELIZA) could pass the Turing Test simply by manipulating symbols of which they had no understanding. Without understanding, they could not be described as "thinking" in the same sense people do. Therefore, Searle concludes, the Turing Test cannot prove that a machine can think.  Much like the Turing test itself, Searle's argument has been both widely criticised  and highly endorsed.